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Note: Juju Actions are required for Juju Benchmarking and knowledge of them is assumed in this section.

With the introduction of Actions, you are now able to write repeatable, reliable, composable benchmarks. This allows you to perform the same benchmark against a variety of hardware configuration, architecture, and cloud provider to identify bottlenecks and test configuration changes so that you can get the most out of your computing dollar.

Benchmark Execution Methods

There are three ways to execute benchmarks in Juju and the nature of the benchmark will determine which method to use:

  1. Integrated into a service charm
    • Use this if you bundle benchmarking as part of your service, or if the benchmark suite for your application runs on the same machine.
  2. Load generation charm
    • Use this if your charm requires software to be run externally across a network to benchmark the service.
  3. Subordinate load generation charm
    • Use this for general-purpose benchmarks applied against a variety of services.

Integrated into a Service Charm

With this method, we add a benchmark-enabled action to a charm.

The name of the action can be whatever best represents the action the user is taking. For example, to run the cassandra-stress tool in the cassandra charm, the action can be named "stress". If there is no simple name, "benchmark" is a great placeholder.

In this section and in the ones that follow, the benchmark action is named "load-gen".

Here's the action.yaml for our charm, which informs Juju about the action we're exposing and what parameter(s) it takes:

  description: Generate load against the service
      type: number
      description: size of load to generate
      default: 1

Load generation charm

Writing a benchmark is similar to writing a charm, with a few new additions. First is the addition of actions.yaml and the actions directory, containing files corresponding to the benchmark defined in the previous actions.yaml example. There's also a new benchmark interface to support, plus installing a lightweight support library, charm-benchmark.

This is an example layout for a load-generation charm:

├── actions
│   └── load-gen
├── actions.yaml
├── hooks
│   ├── benchmark-relation-changed
│   ├── install
│   └── upgrade-charm
├── icon.svg
└── metadata.yaml

Use the install hook to ensure all the required software to run your benchmarks is installed. For example:

set -eux

apt-get install -y python-pip load-gen && pip install -U charm-benchmark

A good example of a load generation charm is the Siege charm.

Subordinate load generation charm

Subordinate charms are installed to the machine they are related to. This can be useful when you have a benchmark that functions against multiple types of charms.

The mysql-benchmark charm, for instance, is a subordinate charm that can run against any related MySQL-compatible database, such as MySQL, Percona, and MariaDB.

Anatomy of a Benchmark


The charm-benchmark helper library makes the development of benchmarks easier. Although this library is a Python package, it includes shims to call its commands from any language. For usage see the charm-benchmark documentation.

How to Write a Benchmark

Benchmarks are simply Juju Actions that follow a specific pattern. For example, here's what actions/load-gen might look like:

set -eux

# Get any parameters as defined in actions.yaml
duration=`action-get duration`
threads=`action-get threads`

run=`date +%s`

mkdir -p /opt/load-gen/cpu/results/$run


load-gen --duration=${duration} --threads=${threads} > /opt/load-gen/cpu/results/$run/load-gen.log


# Handling results: you can use whatever tools you like to slice the output
# of your benchmark.

# Raw results
benchmark-raw /opt/load-gen/cpu/results/$run/load-gen.log

# Parse the output from load-gen
score=`awk '{print $1}' /opt/load-gen/cpu/results/$run/load-gen.log`
availability=`awk '{print $2}' /opt/load-gen/cpu/results/$run/load-gen.log`
responsetime=`awk '{print $3}' /opt/load-gen/cpu/results/$run/load-gen.log`
throughput=`awk '{print $4}' /opt/load-gen/cpu/results/$run/load-gen.log`

benchmark-data 'score' '${score}' 'requests/sec' 'desc'
benchmark-data 'availability' '${availability}'
benchmark-data 'throughput' '${throughput}' 'bytes/sec' 'desc'
benchmark-data 'response-time' '${responsetime}' 'secs' 'asc'

# Set the composite score
benchmark-composite ${score} "requests/sec" "desc"


You may have noticed the benchmark-relation-changed hook in the Load generation charm. This new interface allows a benchmark-enabled charm to inform the Benchmark GUI of what actions are available. While not required, it is highly recommended to implement this interface. It allows for better integration between your benchmarks and the Benchmark GUI.

Simply add the interface to the 'provides' stanza of metadata.yaml:

    interface: benchmark

And add a benchmark-relation-changed hook like so:

set -eux

benchmark-actions load-gen