There may be times, particularly when dealing with complex cloud environments or running multiple instances of Juju, where it would be useful to control further aspects of the Juju environment. Many options can be changed by adding extra key:value pairs to the environments.yaml file which Juju uses to initiate environments. Options which are specific to certain cloud providers are detailed in the individual configuration pages, but there are additional settings which can be applied to any environment. Some of these may be useful for particular use cases as outlined in the sections below, or you can skip to the table of all the values.
You can display the environment settings of a running Juju environment by running the command:
This will include all the currently set options - whether they were set by the individual configuration in the environments.yaml file, set specifically by you or inherited as a default value.
You may also set individual values for the current environment using the
juju set-env command, and providing a key=value pair:
juju set-env noproxy=jujucharms.com
Some values will need to be specified via the environments.yaml file, as not all values can be applied to a running environment.
Note: Juju does not currently check that the provided key is a valid setting, so make sure you spell it correctly.
The APT packaging system is used to install and upgrade software on machines provisioned in the environment, and many charms also use APT to install software for the services they deploy. It is possible to set a specific mirror for the APT packages to use, by setting "apt-mirror" in the environments.yaml file or directly in a running environment:
juju set-env apt-mirror=http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/
It is also possible to set this to a local mirror if desired.
You may also run:
juju unset-env apt-mirror
to restore the default behaviour in a running environment.
agent-stream option selects the versions of Juju which an environment
can deploy and upgrade to. This defaults to "released", indicating that only
the latest stable versions of Juju should be used, which is the recommended
To run the upcoming stable release (before it has passed the normal QA process) you can set:
Alternatively, for testing purposes, you can use the latest unstable version of Juju by setting:
If you have an existing test environment using tools-metadata-url or agent-metadata-url to test proposed versions, you can still upgrade to 1.21.1+. After you upgrade, you can update the environment to use the devel streams at the default stream location:
juju unset-env agent-metadata-url juju set-env agent-stream=proposed
Subsequent upgrades will "just work".
When Juju provisions a machine, its default behaviour is to upgrade existing packages to their latest version. If your OS images are fresh and/or your deployed services do not require the latest package versions, you can disable upgrades in order to provision machines faster.
Two Boolean configuration options are available to disable APT updates and
enable-os-refresh-update (apt-get update) and
(apt-get upgrade), respectively. By default, these are both set to 'true'.
To disable them set them to 'false' in environments.yaml like so:
enable-os-refresh-update: false enable-os-upgrade: false
You may also want to just update the package list to ensure a Charm has the latest software available to it by disabling upgrades but enabling updates.
The Local Provider, however, skips upgrades by default for faster provisioning. If you wish to enable upgrades in your local development, you will need to explicitly set enable-os-upgrade to "true".
If you are using the Local Provider to develop Charms or test, you will want to regularly purge the Juju LXC template and LXC host cache to be certain you are using fresh images. See Installing and configuring Juju for LXC (Linux).
The Juju state server can be run in a mode tuned to be efficient on NUMA hardware. To enable this feature you should add the following to your environments.yaml file:
It is not desirable to set this feature on hardware which is not NUMA compatible.
Juju keeps state on the running environment from which it builds a model. Based on that model, it can harvest machines which it deems are no longer required. This can help reduce running costs and keep the environment 'tidy'. Harvesting is guided by what "harvesting mode" has been set by the system administrator.
Before explaining the different modes, it is useful to understand how Juju perceives machines. As far as it is concerned, machines are in one of four states:
- Alive: The machine is running and being used.
- Dying: The machine is in the process of being terminated by Juju, but hasn't yet finished.
- Dead: The machine has been successfully brought down by Juju, but is still being tracked for removal.
- Unknown: The machine exists, but Juju knows nothing about it.
With the above in mind, Juju can use one of several strategies to delete or harvest machines from the environment
- None: Using this method, Juju won't harvest any machines. This is the most conservative, and a good choice if you manage your machines using a separate process outside of Juju.
- Destroyed: This is the default setting. Juju will harvest only machine instances that are dead, and that Juju knows about. Unknown instances will not be harvested.
- Unknown: With this method, Juju will harvest only instances that Juju doesn't know about. Use this with caution in a mixed environment or one which may contain multiple instances of Juju.
- All: This is the most aggressive setting. In this mode Juju will terminate all instances which it considers to be "destroyed" or "unknown". This is a good option if you are only utilising Juju for your environment.
The default mode can be overridden by setting the
to any of the above values.
|admin-secret||string||The password for the administrator user|
|agent-metadata-url||string||URL of private stream|
|agent-stream||string||released||released/devel/proposed||Version of Juju to use for deploy/upgrades|
|agent-version||string||The desired Juju agent version to use|
|allow-lxc-loop-mounts||bool||false||whether loop devices are allowed to be mounted inside lxc containers|
|api-port||int||17070||The TCP port for the API servers to listen on|
|apt-ftp-proxy||string||The APT FTP proxy for the environment|
|apt-http-proxy||string||The APT HTTP proxy for the environment|
|apt-https-proxy||string||The APT HTTPS proxy for the environment|
|apt-mirror||string||The APT mirror for the environment|
|authorized-keys||string||Any authorized SSH public keys for the environment, as found in a ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file|
|authorized-keys-path||string||Path to file containing SSH authorized keys|
|block-all-changes||bool||Whether all changes to the environment will be prevented|
|block-destroy-environment||bool||Whether the environment will be prevented from destruction|
|block-remove-object||bool||Whether remove operations (machine, service, unit or relation) will be prevented|
|bootstrap-addresses-delay||int||10||The amount of time between refreshing the addresses in seconds. Not too frequent as we refresh addresses from the provider each time|
|bootstrap-retry-delay||int||5||Time between attempts to connect to an address in seconds.|
|bootstrap-timeout||int||600||The amount of time to wait contacting a state server in seconds|
|ca-cert||string||The certificate of the CA that signed the state server certificate, in PEM format|
|ca-cert-path||string||Path to file containing CA certificate|
|ca-private-key||string||The private key of the CA that signed the state server certificate, in PEM format|
|ca-private-key-path||string||Path to file containing CA private key|
|default-series||string||valid series name, e.g. 'trusty'||The default series of Ubuntu to use for deploying charms|
|development||bool||false||Whether the environment is in development mode|
|disable-network-management||bool||false||Whether the provider should control networks (only applies to MAAS environments, this should usually be set to false(default) otherwise Juju will not be able to create containers)|
|enable-os-refresh-update||bool||true||Whether newly provisioned instances should run their respective OS's update capability.|
|enable-os-upgrade||bool||true||Whether newly provisioned instances should run their respective OS's upgrade capability|
|firewall-mode||string||instance||instance/global/none||The mode to use for network firewalling. 'instance' requests the use of an individual firewall per instance. 'global' uses a single firewall for all instances (access for a network port is enabled to one instance if any instance requires that port). 'none' requests that no firewalling should be performed inside the environment. It's useful for clouds without support for either global or per instance security groups|
|ftp-proxy||string||url||The FTP proxy value to configure on instances, in the FTP_PROXY environment variable|
|http-proxy||string||url||The HTTP proxy value to configure on instances, in the HTTP_PROXY environment variable|
|https-proxy||string||url||The HTTPS proxy value to configure on instances, in the HTTPS_PROXY environment variable|
|image-metadata-url||string||url||The URL at which the metadata used to locate OS image ids is located|
|image-stream||string||The simplestreams stream used to identify which image ids to search when starting an instance|
|logging-config||string||The configuration string to use when configuring Juju agent logging (see this link for details)|
|lxc-clone||bool||Whether to use lxc-clone to create new LXC containers|
|lxc-clone-aufs||bool||false||Whether the LXC provisioner should create an LXC clone using AUFS if available|
|lxc-default-mtu||int||The MTU setting to use for network interfaces in LXC containers|
|metadata-source||string||The local directory source for both tools and images metadata, when using a local directory with a private cloud instead of a URL. If using a URL, use 'image-metadata-url'.|
|name||string||The name of the current environment|
|no-proxy||string||List of domain addresses not to be proxied (comma-separated)|
|prefer-ipv6||bool||false||Whether to prefer IPv6 over IPv4 addresses for API endpoints and machines|
|provisioner-harvest-mode||string||destroyed||all/none/unknown/destroyed||What to do with unknown machines. See harvesting section|
|proxy-ssh||bool||Whether SSH commands should be proxied through the API server|
|resource-tags||string||none||Space-separated list of key=value pairs used to apply as tags on supported cloud environments|
|rsyslog-ca-cert||string||The certificate of the CA that signed the rsyslog certificate, in PEM format|
|rsyslog-ca-key||string||The private key of the CA that signed the rsyslog certificate, in PEM format|
|set-numa-control-policy||bool||false||Tune Juju state-server to work with NUMA if present|
|ssl-hostname-verification||bool||true||Whether SSL hostname verification is enabled|
|state-port||int||37017||Port for the API server to listen on|
|storage-default-block-source||string||The default block storage source for the environment|
|syslog-port||int||6514||Port for the syslog UDP/TCP listener to listen on|
|test-mode||bool||false||Whether the environment is intended for testing. If true, accessing the charm store does not affect statistical data of the store|
|type||string||any of the supported provider types||Type of environment, e.g. local, ec2|
|uuid||string||The UUID of the environment|
These keys are now deprecated:
|lxc-use-clone||replaced by lxc-clone|
|provisioner-safe-mode||Whether to run the provisioner in "destroyed" harvest mode (deprecated, superseded by provisioner-harvest-mode)|
|tools-metadata-url||replaced by agent-metadata-url, see release notes for 1.21.1|
|tools-stream||superseded by agent-stream|