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Cloud credentials

In order to access your cloud, Juju will need to know how to authenticate itself. We use the term “credentials” to describe the tokens or keys or secrets used - a set of credentials is represented by a credential name that is used to refer to those credentials in subsequent commands.

Note: LXD deployments are a special case. Accessed locally, they don't need additional credentials. Accessed remotely, they need a certificate credential. See Using LXD as a cloud for further details.

Juju selects credentials according to how many credentials are defined. If you have only one credential, or if a credentials is labelled 'default', this credential will be used by Juju. When multiple credentials are defined, with no default, a credential name must be specified with the --credential argument.

Currently, Juju can use one of three ways to get your credentials for a cloud:

  • Entering credentials interactively on the command line
  • Scanning existing credentials (e.g. environment variables, .novarc files)
  • Importing a user-provided YAML-formatted file.

These methods are explained in more detail below.

If you are having difficulty determining the credentials needed for your particular cloud, you should find these pages on specific clouds helpful:

Amazon Web Services

Microsoft Azure

Google Compute Engine



Adding credentials via the command line

You can add credentials by running the command:

juju add-credential <cloud>

Juju will then ask for the information it needs. This may vary according to the cloud you are using, but will typically look something like this:

Enter credential name: carol
Using auth-type "access-key".
Enter access-key: *******
Enter secret-key: *******
Credentials added for cloud aws.

Once you have supplied all the information, the credentials will be added.

At present, you will need to manually set one to be the default, if you have more than one for a cloud:

juju set-default-credential <cloud> <credential>

Setting a default credential means this will be used by the bootstrap command when creating a controller, without having to specify it with the --credential option.

Scanning existing credentials

Some cloud providers (e.g. AWS, Openstack) have command line tools which rely on environment variables being used to store credentials. If these are in use on your system already, or you choose to define them ([there is extra info here][env]), Juju can import them.

For example, AWS uses the following environment variables (among others):



If these are already set in your shell (you can echo $AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID to test) they can be used by Juju.

To scan your system for credentials Juju can use, run the command:

juju autoload-credentials

This will will ask you whether to store each set of credentials it finds. Note that this is a 'snapshot' of those stored values - Juju will not notice if they change in future.

Adding credentials from a YAML file.

You can also specify a YAML format file for the credentials. This file would be similar to, but shorter than this extensive sample, which we will call mycreds.yaml:

        default-credential: peter
        default-region: us-west-2
          auth-type: access-key
          access-key: AKIAIH7SUFMBP455BSQ
          secret-key: HEg5Y1DuGabiLt72LyCLkKnOw+NZkgszh3qIZbWv
          auth-type: access-key
          access-key: KAZHUKJHE33P455BSQB
          secret-key: WXg6S5Y1DvwuGt72LwzLKnItt+GRwlkn668sXHqq
          auth-type: oauth1
          maas-oauth: 5weWAsjhe9lnaLKHERNSlke320ah9naldIHnrelks
        default-region: region-a
          auth-type: userpass
          password: UberPassK3yz
          tenant-name: appserver
          username: peter
          auth-type: jsonfile
          file: ~/.config/gcloud/application_default_credentials.json
          auth-type: userpass
          application-id: niftyapp
          subscription-id: 31fb132e-e774-49dd-adbb-d6a4e966c583
          application-password: UberPassK3yz
          auth-type: userpass
          sdc-user: admingal
          sdc-key-id: 2048 00:11:22:33:44:55:66:77:88:99:aa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ff
          private-key: key (or private-key-path, like `~/.ssh/`)
          algorithm: "rsa-sha256"

A source file like the above can be added to Juju's list of credentials with the command:

juju add-credential aws -f mycreds.yaml

This sample includes all of the default cloud options plus a couple of special cloud options, MAAS and an OpenStack cloud called homestack in the sample. See Clouds.

Managing credentials

You can check what credentials are stored by Juju by running the command:

juju credentials

...which will return a list of the known credentials. For example:

Cloud      Credentials
aws     bob*, carol
google  wayne

The asterisk '*' denotes the default credential, which will be used for the named cloud unless another is specified.

For YAML output that includes detailed credential information, including secrets like access keys and passwords:

juju credentials --format yaml --show-secrets

The YAML output will be similar to our 'mycreds.yaml' sample above.

You can set the default credential:

juju set-default-credential aws carol

To replace or update an existing credential, edit or create a file, such as our 'mycreds.yaml' example above, then run:

juju add-credential aws -f mycreds.yaml --replace

This will overwrite existing credential information, so make sure all current credentials are contained in the file, not just the new or changed one.

If a credential is no longer required, it can be removed:

juju remove-credential aws bob