The fundamental point of Juju is that you can use it to deploy applications through the use of charms (the magic bits of code that make things just work). These charms can exist in the Charm Store or on the file system (previously downloaded from the store or written locally).
Charms use the concept of series analogous as to how Juju does with Ubuntu series ('trusty', 'xenial', etc). For the most part, this is transparent as Juju will use the most relevant charm to ensure things "just work". This makes deploying applications with Juju fun and easy.
Typically, applications are deployed using the online charms. This ensures that you get the latest version of the charm. To deploy in this way:
juju deploy mysql
This will create a machine and use the latest online MySQL charm (for your default series) to deploy a MySQL application.
Note: The default series can be configured at a model level (see Configuring models). In the absence of this setting, the default is to use the series specified by the charm.
Assuming that the Xenial series charm exists and was used above, an equivalent command is:
juju deploy cs:xenial/mysql
Where 'cs' denotes the charm store.
Note: A used charm gets cached on the controller's database to minimize network traffic for subsequent uses.
The charm store offers charms in different stages of development. Such stages are called channels.
Channels offer a way for charm developers, and the users of charms, to manage and offer charms at various stages of development. Some users may want the very latest features, or be part of a beta test; others may want to only install the most reliable software. The channels are:
- stable: (default) This is the latest, tested, working stable version of the charm.
- candidate: A release candidate. There is high confidence this will work fine, but there may be minor bugs.
- beta: A beta testing milestone release.
- edge: The very latest version - expect bugs!
As each new version of a charm is automatically versioned, these channels serve as pointers to a specific version number. It may be that after time a beta version becomes a candidate, or a candidate (hopefully) becomes the new stable version.
By default you will get the 'stable' channel, but you can specify a channel
when using the
juju deploy mysql --channel <channel_name>
In the case of there being no version of the charm specified for that channel, Juju will fall back to the next 'most stable'; e.g. if you were to specify the 'beta' channel, but no charm version is set for that channel, Juju will try to deploy from the 'candidate' channel instead, and so on. This means that whenever you specify a channel, you will always end up with something that best approximates your choice if it is not available.
Because the pointer can fluctuate among revisions it is possible that during a charm upgrade the channel revision is different than the revision of a currently deployed charm. The following rules apply:
- If a channel revision is older, downgrade the deployed charm to that revision
- If a channel revision is newer, upgrade the deployed charm to that revision
Channels can be specified with the
upgrade-charm command. For example:
juju upgrade-charm mysql --channel edge
Charms can be created that support more than one release of a given operating system distro, such as the multiple Ubuntu releases shown below. It is not possible to create a charm to support multiple distros, such as one charm for both Ubuntu and CentOS. Supported series are added to the charm metadata like this:
name: mycharm summary: "Great software" description: It works maintainer: Some One <firstname.lastname@example.org> categories: - databases series: - trusty - xenial provides: db: interface: pgsql requires: syslog: interface: syslog
The default series for the charm is the first one listed. So, in this example,
trusty, all you need is:
juju deploy mycharm
You can specify a different series using the
juju deploy mycharm --series xenial
You can force the charm to deploy using an unsupported series using the
juju deploy mycharm --series yakkety --force
Here is a more complete example showing a new machine being added that uses
a different series than is supported by our
mycharm example and then forcing
the charm to install:
juju add-machine --series yakkety Machine 1 added. juju deploy mycharm --to 1 --force
It may be required to use
--force when upgrading charms. For example, in a
case where an application is initially deployed using a charm that supports
trusty. If a new version of the charm is released that only
xenial then it will be allowed to upgrade applications
precise, but only using
--force-series, like this:
juju upgrade-charm mycharm --force-series
To deploy applications using local charms, you may specify the path to the charm directory. For example, to deploy vsftpd from a local filesystem:
juju deploy ~/charms/vsftpd --series trusty
Local charms may not have a specific declared series (charms fetched from the store always have an implied series). You do not have to specify the series if the charm contains a series declaration, or if you have specified a default series in the model configuration. For example:
juju model-config -m mymodel default-series=trusty
See Configuring models for more details on model level configuration.
See Addendum: local charms below for further explanation of local charms and how they can be managed.
Deployed applications usually start with a sane default configuration. However,
for some applications it is desirable (and quicker) to configure them at
deployment time. This can be done by creating a YAML format file of
configuration values and using the
juju deploy mysql --config=myconfig.yaml
See application configuration for more on this.
It is possible to specify which machine or container an application is to be deployed to. One notable reason is to reduce costs when using a public cloud; applications can be consolidated instead of dedicating a machine per application unit.
--constraints option is used to create an LXD controller with
enough memory for other applications to run. The
--to option is used to
specify a machine:
juju bootstrap --constraints="mem=4G" lxd lxd-controller juju deploy mysql juju deploy --to 0 rabbitmq-server
Here, MySQL is deployed as the first unit (in the 'default' model) and so ends up on machine '0'. Then Rabbitmq gets deployed to machine '0' as well.
Applications can also be deployed to containers:
juju deploy mysql --to 24/lxd/3 juju deploy mysql --to lxd:25
Above, MySQL is deployed to existing container '3' on machine '24'. Afterwards, a MySQL application is deployed to a new container on machine '25'.
The above examples show how to deploy to a machine where you know the machine's
identifier. The output to
juju status will provide this information.
It is also possible to deploy units using placement directives as
arguments. Placement directives are provider specific. For example:
juju deploy mysql --to zone=us-east-1a juju deploy mysql --to host.mass
The first example deploys to a specified zone for AWS. The second example deploys to a named machine in MAAS.
add-unit command also supports the
--to option, so it's now possible to
specifically target machines when expanding application capacity:
juju deploy --constraints="mem=4G" openstack-dashboard juju add-unit --to 1 rabbitmq-server
There should now be a second machine running both the openstack-dashboard
application and a second unit of the rabbitmq-server application. The
juju status command will show this.
These two features make it much easier to deploy complex applications such as OpenStack which use a large number of charms on a limited number of physical servers.
As with deploy, the --to option used with
add-unit also supports placement
directives. A comma separated list of directives can be provided to cater for
the case where more than one unit is being added.
juju add-unit rabbitmq-server -n 4 --to zone=us-west-1a,zone=us-east-1b juju add-unit rabbitmq-server -n 4 --to host1,host2,host3,host4
Any extra placement directives are ignored. If not enough placement directives are supplied, then the remaining units will be assigned as normal to a new, clean machine.
More complex networks can be configured using spaces. Spaces group one or more routable subnets with common ingress and egress rules to give the operator much better and finer-grained control over all networking aspects of a model and its application deployments.
See the How to configure more complex networks using spaces for details on creating and listing spaces.
When deploying a charm or a bundle, you can specify a space using the
argument following the
juju deploy command.
When deploying an application to a target with multiple spaces, the operator must specify which space to use because ambiguous bindings will result in a provisioning failure. For example, the following will deploy the 'mysql' application to the 'db-space' space:
juju deploy mysql --bind db-space
For finer control, the
--bind argument can also be used to specify how
specific charm-defined endpoints are connected to specific spaces, including a
default option for any interfaces not specified:
juju deploy --bind "db:db-space db-admin:admin-space default-space" mysql
For information on building bundles with bindings, see Using and Creating Bundles.
deploy commands allow the specification of a
spaces constraint using the
juju add-machine --constraints spaces=db-space
The spaces constraint allows you to select an instance for the new machine or unit, connected to one or more existing spaces. Both positive and negative entries are accepted, the latter prefixed by "^", in a comma-delimited list. For example, given the following:
Juju will provision instances connected to (with IP addresses on) one of the subnets of both db-space and internal spaces, and NOT connected to either the storage or dmz spaces.
See Constraints for more general information regarding
constraints. To learn about
extra-bindings, which provide a way to declare
an extra bindable endpoint that is not a relation, see Charm
You can use the
retry-provisioning command in cases where deploying
applications, adding units, or adding machines fails. It allows you to specify
machines which should be retried to resolve errors reported with
For example, after having deployed 100 units and machines, status reports that machines '3', '27' and '57' could not be provisioned because of a 'rate limit exceeded' error. You can ask Juju to retry:
juju retry-provisioning 3 27 57
Although we are working to have each application co-locatable without the danger of conflicting configuration files and network configurations this work is not yet complete.
add-unit command supports the
--to option, you can elect not use
--to when doing an "add-unit" to scale out the application on its own node.
juju add-unit rabbitmq-server
This will allow you to save money when you need it by using
--to, but also
horizontally scale out on dedicated machines when you need to.
networks option to specify application-specific network requirements.
networks option takes a comma-delimited list of Juju-specific network
Juju will enable the networks on the machines that host application units. This
is different from the network constraint which selects a machine that matches
the networks, but does not configure the machine to use them. For example, this
commands deploys an application to a machine on the "db" and "monitor" networks
and enables them:
juju deploy --networks db,monitor mysql
This is further explanation of offline/local charms.
There are times when it may not be possible to use the charms located in the official Charm Store. Such cases include:
- The backing cloud may be private and not have internet access.
- The charms may not exist online. They are newly-written charms.
- The charms may exist online but they have been customized locally.
Note: Although this method will ensure that the charms themselves are available on systems without outside internet access, there is no guarantee that a charm will work in a disconnected state. Some charms will attempt to pull code from sources on the internet such as GitHub.
Charm Tools is a set of tools that can be useful when using locally stored charms.
See Charm Tools for more information.
Users of Ubuntu 14.04 (Trusty) will need to first add a PPA:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:juju/stable sudo apt update
Install the software:
sudo apt install charm-tools
Charm commands are called with
charm-help is used to view the available subcommands. Each
subcommand has its own help page, which is accessible by adding either the
charm add --help
When downloading charms, they end up in a directory with the same name as the charm. It is therefore a good idea to work from a central directory. For example, to download the MySQL and the WordPress charms:
mkdir ~/charms cd ~/charms charm pull nfs charm pull vsftpd