Writing charms that use resources

Many applications require binary resources to complete the install process. While it is possible for a charm to download this software from package repositories or other locations, some charms may be deployed in data centers with restrictive firewalls that do not allow access to all areas of the Internet. It may also be desirable to more strictly control what specific resources are deployed.

Starting with Juju 2.0, users can upload resources to the controller or the Juju Charm Store from where they are accessible to charms.

Use discrete files for resources. E.g. if your charm requires a software package and a dependency, then use two resources, one for the software package and one for the dependency. Do not group resources. Keep them discrete. Juju optimizes distribution of resources. If resources are grouped into one file (resource) then they are larger and must be updated everywhere when they are updated.

How it works

Developing a charm with resources

Charm developers can add a resources key to the metadata.yaml file to define one or more resources.

    type: file
    filename: software.zip
    description: "One line description that is useful when operators need to push it."

The filename is what Juju will name the file locally when it is downloaded. Juju will check the extension on the file being uploaded and will prevent files with different extensions from being uploaded.

Managing resources

Resources can be uploaded to a local Juju controller, where only charms from that controller can access the resources, or to the Juju Charm Store where access is controlled by permissions assigned to the charms to which the resources are attached.

Listing resources

juju resources

Users can list the resources that are currently available on the Juju controller by using the juju resources command. The command shows resources for a service or a unit.

$ juju resources resources-example
software admin@local 2016-25-05T18:37

$ juju resources resources-example/0
software 2016-25-05T18:37

charm list-resources

Users can display the resources that are currently available in Juju Charm Store for a charm or a specific revision number with the charm list-resources command.

$ charm list-resources cs:~lazypower/etcd
etcd     0
etcdctl  0

Adding resources

juju attach

The juju attach command uploads a file from local disk to the Juju controller to be used as a resource for a service. You must specify the charm name, the resource name and the path to the file.

juju attach charm-name resource-name=filepath

If you attach a resource to a running charm the upgrade-charm hook is run. This gives charm authors the ability to handle new resources appropriately.

juju deploy

Resources may be uploaded to the Juju controller at deploy time by specifying the --resource flag followed by resource-name=filepath pair. This flag may be repeated more than once to upload more than one resource.

juju deploy charm-name --resource foo=/some/file.tgz --resource bar=./docs/cfg.xml

Where "foo" and "bar" are the resource names in the metadata.yaml file for the charm-name charm.

charm attach

The charm attach command uploads a file to the Juju Charm Store as a new resource for the charm. You must specify the fully qualified charm name, including the version. e.g. ~you/mycharm-0 instead of just ~you/mycharm.

charm attach ~mbruzek/trusty/consul-0 software=./consul_0.6.4_linux_amd64.zip

Using resources in a charm


The charm command resource-get will fetch a resource from the Juju controller or the Juju Charm store. The command returns a local path to the file for a named resource.

If resource-get has not been run for the named resource previously, then the resource is downloaded from the controller at the revision associated with the unit's application. That file is stored in the unit's local cache. If resource-get has been run before then each subsequent run synchronizes the resource with the controller. This ensures that the revision of the unit-local copy of the resource matches the revision of the resource associated with the unit's application.

The path provided by resource-get references the up-to-date file for the resource. Note that the resource may get updated on the controller for the service at any time, meaning the cached copy may be out of date at any time after resource-get is called. Consequently, the command should be run at every point where it is critical for the resource be up to date.

# resource-get software