keystone #283

Description

Keystone is an OpenStack project that provides Identity, Token, Catalog and
Policy services for use specifically by projects in the OpenStack family. It
implements OpenStack's Identity API.


Overview

This charm provides Keystone, the OpenStack identity service. Its target
platform is (ideally) Ubuntu LTS + OpenStack.

Usage

The following interfaces are provided:

  • nrpe-external-master: Used to generate Nagios checks.

  • identity-service: OpenStack API endpoints request an entry in the
    Keystone service catalog + endpoint template catalog. When a relation is
    established, Keystone receives: service_name, region, public_url,
    admin_url and internal_url. It first checks that the requested service is
    listed as a supported service. This list should stay updated to support
    current OpenStack core services. If the service is supported, an entry in the
    service catalog is created, an endpoint template is created and a admin token
    is generated. The other end of the relation receives the token as well as
    info on which ports Keystone is listening on.

  • keystone-service: This is currently only used by Horizon/dashboard
    as its interaction with Keystone is different from other OpenStack API
    services. That is, Horizon requests a Keystone role and token exists. During
    a relation, Horizon requests its configured default role and Keystone
    responds with a token and the auth + admin ports on which Keystone is
    listening.

  • identity-admin: Charms use this relation to obtain the credentials
    for the admin user. This is intended for charms that automatically provision
    users, tenants, etc. or that otherwise automate using the OpenStack cluster
    deployment.

  • identity-notifications: Used to broadcast messages to any services
    listening on the interface.

  • identity-credentials: Charms use this relation to obtain keystone
    credentials without creating a service catalog entry. Set 'username'
    only on the relation and keystone will set defaults and return
    authentication details. Possible relation settings:

  • username Username to be created.
  • project Project (tenant) name to be created. Defaults to services
    project.
  • requested_roles Comma delimited list of roles to be created
  • requested_grants Comma delimited list of roles to be granted.
    Defaults to Admin role.
  • domain Keystone v3 domain the user will be created in. Defaults
    to the Default domain.

Database

Keystone requires a database. The charm supports relation to a shared database
server through the mysql-shared interface. When a new data store is
configured, the charm ensures the minimum administrator credentials exist (as
configured in charm configuration)

HA/Clustering

There are two mutually exclusive high availability options: using virtual
IP(s) or DNS. In both cases, a relationship to hacluster is required which
provides the corosync back end HA functionality.

To use virtual IP(s) the clustered nodes must be on the same subnet such that
the VIP is a valid IP on the subnet for one of the node's interfaces and each
node has an interface in said subnet. The VIP becomes a highly-available API
endpoint.

At a minimum, the config option vip must be set in order to use virtual IP
HA. If multiple networks are being used, a VIP should be provided for each
network, separated by spaces. Optionally, vip_iface or vip_cidr may be
specified.

To use DNS high availability there are several prerequisites. However, DNS HA
does not require the clustered nodes to be on the same subnet.
Currently the DNS HA feature is only available for MAAS 2.0 or greater
environments. MAAS 2.0 requires Juju 2.0 or greater. The clustered nodes must
have static or "reserved" IP addresses registered in MAAS. The DNS hostname(s)
must be pre-registered in MAAS before use with DNS HA.

At a minimum, the configuration option dns-ha must be set to true and at
least one of os-public-hostname, os-internal-hostname or
os-internal-hostname must be set in order to use DNS HA. One or more of the
above hostnames may be set.

The charm will throw an exception in the following circumstances:

  • If neither vip nor dns-ha is set and the charm is related to hacluster

  • If both vip and dns-ha are set as they are mutually exclusive

  • If dns-ha is set and none of the os-{admin,internal,public}-hostname
    configuration options are set

TLS/HTTPS

Support for TLS and https endpoints can be enabled through configuration
options.

To enable TLS and https endpoints with a certificate signed by your own
Certificate Authority, set the following configuration options:

  • ssl_ca

  • ssl_cert

  • ssl_key

Example bundle usage:

keystone:
  charm: cs:keystone
  num_units: 1
  options:
    ssl_ca:   include-base64://path-to-base64-encoded-ca-data
    ssl_cert: include-base64://path-to-base64-encoded-certificate-data
    ssl_key:  include-base64://path-to-base64-encoded-key-data

NOTE: If your certificate is signed by a Certificate Authority present in the
CA Certificate Store in operating systems used in your deployment you do not
need to provide the ssl_ca configuration option.

Network Space support

This charm supports the use of Juju Network Spaces, allowing the charm to be
bound to network space configurations managed directly by Juju. This is only
supported with Juju 2.0 and above.

API endpoints can be bound to distinct network spaces supporting the network
separation of public, internal and admin endpoints.

Access to the underlying MySQL instance can also be bound to a specific space
using the shared-db relation.

To use this feature, use the --bind option when deploying the charm:

juju deploy keystone --bind "public=public-space internal=internal-space admin=admin-space shared-db=internal-space"

Alternatively these can also be provided as part of a juju native bundle
configuration:

keystone:
  charm: cs:xenial/keystone
  num_units: 1
  bindings:
    public: public-space
    admin: admin-space
    internal: internal-space
    shared-db: internal-space

NOTE: Spaces must be configured in the underlying provider prior to attempting to use them.

NOTE: Existing deployments using os\-\*-network configuration options will
continue to function; these options are preferred over any network space
binding provided if set.

Token Support

As the keystone-charm supports multiple releases of the OpenStack software, it
also supports two keystone token systems: UUID and Fernet. The capabilities are:

  • pre 'ocata': UUID tokens only.
  • ocata and pike: UUID or Fernet tokens, configured via the 'token-provider'
    configuration parameter.
  • rocky and later: Fernet tokens only.

Fernet tokens were added to OpenStack to solve the problem of keystone being
required to persist tokens to a common database (cluster) like UUID tokens,
and solve the problem of size for PKI or PKIZ tokens.

For further information please see Fernet - Frequently Asked
Questions
.

Theory of Operation

In order to generate tokens, Fernet keys are used. These are generated by
keystone and have an expiry date. The key repository is a directory, and each
key is an integer number, with the highest number being the primary key. Key
'0' is the staged key, that will be the next primary. Other keys are secondary
keys.

New tokens are only ever generated from the primary key, whilst they secondary
keys are used to validate existing tokens. The staging key is not used to
generate tokens, but can be used to validate tokens as the staging key might be
the new primary key on the master due to a rotation and the keys have not yet
been synchronised across all the units.

Fernet keys need to be rotated at periodic intervals, and the keys need to be
synchronised to each of the other keystone units. Keys should only be rotated
on the master keystone unit, and must be synchronised before they are rotated
again. Over rotation occurs if a unit rotates its keys such that there is
no suitable decoding key on another unit that can decode a token that has been
generated on the master. This happens if two key rotations are done on the
master before a synchronisation has been successfully performed. This should
be avoided. Over rotations can also cause validation keys to be removed
before a token's expiration which would result in failed validations.

There are 3 parts to the Key Rotation Strategy:

  1. The rotation frequency
  2. The token lifespan
  3. The number of active keys

There needs to be at least 3 keys as a minimum. The actual number of keys is
determined by the token lifespan and the rotation frequency. The
max_active_keys must be one greater than the token lifespan / rotation
frequency

To quote from the FAQ:

    The number of max_active_keys for a deployment can be determined by
    dividing the token lifetime, in hours, by the frequency of rotation in
    hours and adding two. Better illustrated as:

Configuring key lifetime

In the keystone-charm, the rotation frequency is calculated
automatically from the token-expiration and the fernet-max-active-keys
configuration parameters. For example, with an expiration of 24 hours and
6 active keys, the rotation frequency is calculated as:

token_expiration = 24   # actually 3600, as it's in seconds
max_active_keys = 6
rotation_frequency = token_expiration / (max_active_keys - 2)

Thus, the fernet-max-active-keys can never be less than 3 (which is
enforced in the charm), which would make the rotation frequency the same
as the token expiration time.

Note: that to increase the rotation frequency, either increase
fernet-max-active-keys or reduce token-expiration, and to decrease
rotation frequency, do the opposite.

Note: if the configuration parameters are used to significantly reduce the
key lifetime, then it is possible to over-rotate the verification keys
such that services will hold tokens that cannot be verified but haven't
yet expired. This should be avoided by only making small changes and
verifying that current tokens will still be able to be verified. In
particular, fernet-max-active-keys affects the rotation time.

Upgrades

When an older keystone-charm is upgraded to this version, NO change will
occur to the token system. That is, an ocata system will continue to use
UUID tokens. In order to change the token system to Fernet, change the
token-provider configuration item to fernet. This will switch the
token system over. There may be a small outage in the control plane,
but the running instances will be unaffected.

Configuration

ssl_key
(string) base64-encoded SSL key to use with certificate specified as ssl_cert.
admin-token
(string) Admin token. If set, this token will be used for all services instead of being generated per service.
None
vip_iface
(string) Default network interface to use for HA vip when it cannot be automatically determined.
eth0
verbose
(boolean) Enable verbose logging.
nagios_servicegroups
(string) A comma-separated list of nagios servicegroups. If left empty, the nagios_context will be used as the servicegroup
haproxy-server-timeout
(int) Server timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 90000ms is used.
service-port
(int) Port the bind the API server to.
5000
ldap-user
(string) Username of the ldap identity server. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
None
identity-backend
(string) Keystone identity backend, valid options are: sql, ldap, pam. . NOTE: this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends.
sql
vip
(string) Virtual IP(s) to use to front API services in HA configuration. . If multiple networks are being used, a VIP should be provided for each network, separated by spaces.
log-level
(string) Log level (WARNING, INFO, DEBUG, ERROR)
WARNING
worker-multiplier
(float) The CPU core multiplier to use when configuring worker processes for Keystone. By default, the number of workers for each daemon is set to twice the number of CPU cores a service unit has. When deployed in a LXD container, this default value will be capped to 4 workers unless this configuration option is set.
admin-password
(string) Admin password. To be used *for testing only*. Randomly generated by default. To retreive generated password, juju run --unit keystone/0 leader-get admin_passwd
None
fernet-max-active-keys
(int) This is the maximum number of active keys when `token-provider` is set to "fernet". If has a minimum of 3, which includes the spare and staging keys. When set to 3, the rotation time for the keys is the same as the token expiration time. When set to a higher value, the rotation time is less than the `token-expiration` time as calculated by: . rotation-time = token-expiration / (fernet-max-active-keys - 2) . Please see the charm documentation for further details about how to use the Fernet token parameters to achieve a key strategy appropriate for the system in question.
3
haproxy-queue-timeout
(int) Queue timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 9000ms is used.
token-expiration
(int) Amount of time (in seconds) a token should remain valid.
3600
os-admin-network
(string) The IP address and netmask of the OpenStack Admin network (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24) . This network will be used for admin endpoints.
prefer-ipv6
(boolean) If True enables IPv6 support. The charm will expect network interfaces to be configured with an IPv6 address. If set to False (default) IPv4 is expected. . NOTE: these charms do not currently support IPv6 privacy extension. In order for this charm to function correctly, the privacy extension must be disabled and a non-temporary address must be configured/available on your network interface.
ldap-server
(string) Ldap server address for keystone identity backend. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
None
keystone-admin-role
(string) Role that allows admin operations (access to all operations).
Admin
service-tenant
(string) Name of tenant to associate service credentials.
services
os-public-network
(string) The IP address and netmask of the OpenStack Public network (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24) . This network will be used for public endpoints.
ssl_cert
(string) base64-encoded SSL certificate to install and use for API ports. Setting this value and ssl_key will enable reverse proxying, point Keystone's entry in the Keystone catalog to use https, and override any certificate and key issued by Keystone (if it is configured to do so).
ha-mcastport
(int) Default multicast port number that will be used to communicate between HA Cluster nodes.
5434
use-syslog
(boolean) Setting this to True will allow supporting services to log to syslog.
ha-bindiface
(string) Default network interface on which HA cluster will bind to communication with the other members of the HA Cluster.
eth0
admin-user
(string) Default admin user to create and manage.
admin
haproxy-client-timeout
(int) Client timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 90000ms is used.
admin-role
(string) Admin role to be associated with admin and service users.
Admin
admin-port
(int) Port the bind the Admin API server to.
35357
os-public-hostname
(string) The hostname or address of the public endpoints created for keystone in the keystone identity provider (itself). . This value will be used for public endpoints. For example, an os-public-hostname set to 'keystone.example.com' with ssl enabled will create a public endpoint for keystone as: . https://keystone.example.com:5000/v2.0
action-managed-upgrade
(boolean) If True enables openstack upgrades for this charm via juju actions. You will still need to set openstack-origin to the new repository but instead of an upgrade running automatically across all units, it will wait for you to execute the openstack-upgrade action for this charm on each unit. If False it will revert to existing behavior of upgrading all units on config change.
os-admin-hostname
(string) The hostname or address of the admin endpoints created for keystone in the keystone identity provider (itself). . This value will be used for admin endpoints. For example, an os-admin-hostname set to 'keystone.admin.example.com' with ssl enabled will create a admin endpoint for keystone as: . https://keystone.admin.example.com:5000/v2.0
ldap-suffix
(string) Ldap server suffix to be used by keystone. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
None
ldap-readonly
(boolean) Ldap identity server backend readonly to keystone. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
True
dns-ha
(boolean) Use DNS HA with MAAS 2.0. Note if this is set do not set vip settings below.
keystone-service-admin-role
(string) Role that allows acting as service admin.
KeystoneServiceAdmin
openstack-origin
(string) Repository from which to install. May be one of the following: distro (default), ppa:somecustom/ppa, a deb url sources entry, or a supported Ubuntu Cloud Archive e.g. . cloud:<series>-<openstack-release> cloud:<series>-<openstack-release>/updates cloud:<series>-<openstack-release>/staging cloud:<series>-<openstack-release>/proposed . See https://wiki.ubuntu.com/OpenStack/CloudArchive for info on which cloud archives are available and supported. . NOTE: updating this setting to a source that is known to provide a later version of OpenStack will trigger a software upgrade unless action-managed-upgrade is set to True. NOTE: a corresponding public key from keyserver.ubuntu.com can be used when specifying a repository by appending the key separated by a | when entering the deb url sources entry, i.e. openstack-origin="deb <DEB URL>|<PUB KEY>"
distro
os-internal-network
(string) The IP address and netmask of the OpenStack Internal network (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24) . This network will be used for internal endpoints.
database
(string) Keystone database name.
keystone
token-provider
(string) Transitional configuration option to enable migration to Fernet tokens prior to upgrade to OpenStack Rocky. . Supported values are 'uuid' and 'fernet'. . NOTE: This configuration option is honoured on OpenStack versions Ocata through Queens. For OpenStack Rocky it is a unconfigurable default. Silently ignored for all other versions.
region
(string) Space-separated list of Openstack regions.
RegionOne
nagios_context
(string) Used by the nrpe-external-master subordinate charm. A string that will be prepended to instance name to set the host name in nagios. So for instance the hostname would be something like 'juju-myservice-0'. If you are running multiple environments with the same services in them this allows you to differentiate between them.
juju
service-admin-prefix
(string) When service relations are joined they provide a name used to create a service admin_username in keystone. The name used may be too crude for some situations e.g. pre-populated LDAP identity backend. If set, this option will be prepended to each service admin_username.
assignment-backend
(string) Keystone assignment backend, valid options are sql, ldap. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
sql
ssl_ca
(string) base64-encoded SSL CA to use with the certificate and key provided - this is only required if you are providing a privately signed ssl_cert and ssl_key.
harden
(string) Apply system hardening. Supports a space-delimited list of modules to run. Supported modules currently include os, ssh, apache and mysql.
ldap-password
(string) Password of the ldap identity server. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
None
ldap-config-flags
(string) Comma-separated options for ldap configuration. . [DEPRECATED] this option should no longer be used to configure ldap. Instead the cs:keystone-ldap subordinate charm should be used to configure ldap backends. This option will be removed in the next release.
None
debug
(boolean) Enable debug logging.
os-internal-hostname
(string) The hostname or address of the internal endpoints created for keystone in the keystone identity provider (itself). . This value will be used for internal endpoints. For example, an os-internal-hostname set to 'keystone.internal.example.com' with ssl enabled will create a internal endpoint for keystone as: . https://keystone.internal.example.com:5000/v2.0
haproxy-connect-timeout
(int) Connect timeout configuration in ms for haproxy, used in HA configurations. If not provided, default value of 9000ms is used.
database-user
(string) Username used for connecting to the Keystone database.
keystone
vip_cidr
(int) Default CIDR netmask to use for HA vip when it cannot be automatically determined.
24
preferred-api-version
(int) Use this keystone api version for keystone endpoints and advertise this version to identity client charms. For OpenStack releases < Queens this option defaults to 2; for Queens or later it defaults to 3.