openstack base #49

Basic OpenStack Cloud

This example bundle deploys a basic OpenStack Cloud (Newton release) on Ubuntu 16.04 LTS, providing Dashboard, Compute, Network, Block Storage, Object Storage, Identity and Image services.


This example bundle is designed to run on bare metal using Juju with MAAS (Metal-as-a-Service); you will need to have setup a MAAS deployment with a minimum of 4 physical servers prior to using this bundle.

Certain configuration options within the bundle may need to be adjusted prior to deployment to fit your particular set of hardware. For example, network device names and block device names can vary, and passwords should be yours.

Servers should have:

  • A minimum of 8GB of physical RAM.
  • Enough CPU cores to support your capacity requirements.
  • Two disks (identified by /dev/sda and /dev/sdb); the first is used by MAAS for the OS install, the second for Ceph storage.
  • Two cabled network ports on eth0 and eth1 (see below).

Servers should have two physical network ports cabled; the first is used for general communication between services in the Cloud, the second is used for 'public' network traffic to and from instances (North/South traffic) running within the Cloud.


  • 1 Node for Neutron Gateway and Ceph with RabbitMQ and MySQL under LXC containers.
  • 3 Nodes for Nova Compute and Ceph, with Keystone, Glance, Neutron, Nova Cloud Controller, Ceph RADOS Gateway, Cinder and Horizon under LXC containers.

All physical servers (not LXC containers) will also have NTP installed and configured to keep time in sync.

Neutron Gateway, Nova Compute and Ceph services are designed to be horizontally scalable.

To horizontally scale Nova Compute:

juju add-unit nova-compute # Add one more unit
juju add-unit -n5 nova-compute # Add 5 more units

To horizontally scale Neutron Gateway:

juju add-unit neutron-gateway # Add one more unit
juju add-unit -n2 neutron-gateway # Add 2 more unitsa

To horizontally scale Ceph:

juju add-unit ceph-osd # Add one more unit
juju add-unit -n50 ceph-osd # add 50 more units

Note: Ceph can be scaled alongside Nova Compute or Neutron Gateway by adding units using the --to option:

juju add-unit --to <machine-id-of-compute-service> ceph-osd

Note: Other services in this bundle can be scaled in-conjunction with the hacluster charm to produce scalable, highly avaliable services - that will be covered in a different bundle.

Ensuring it's working

To ensure your cloud is functioning correctly, download this bundle and then run through the following sections.

All commands are executed from within the expanded bundle.

Install OpenStack client tools

In order to configure and use your cloud, you'll need to install the appropriate client tools:

sudo apt-get -y install python-novaclient python-keystoneclient \
    python-glanceclient python-neutronclient

Accessing the cloud

Check that you can access your cloud from the command line:

source novarc
keystone catalog

You should get a full listing of all services registered in the cloud which should include identity, compute, image and network.

Configuring an image

In order to run instances on your cloud, you'll need to upload an image to boot instances from:

mkdir -p ~/images
wget -O ~/images/trusty-server-cloudimg-amd64-disk1.img \
glance image-create --name="trusty" --visibility public --progress \
    --container-format=bare --disk-format=qcow2 \
    < ~/images/trusty-server-cloudimg-amd64-disk1.img

Configure networking

For the purposes of a quick test, we'll setup an 'external' network and shared router ('provider-router') which will be used by all tenants for public access to instances:

./neutron-ext-net -g <gateway-ip> -c <network-cidr> \
    -f <pool-start>:<pool-end> ext_net

for example (for a private cloud):

./neutron-ext-net -g -c \
    -f ext_net

You'll need to adapt the parameters for the network configuration that eth1 on all the servers is connected to; in a public cloud deployment these ports would be connected to a publicly addressable part of the Internet.

We'll also need an 'internal' network for the admin user which instances are actually connected to:

./neutron-tenant-net -t admin -r provider-router \
    [-N <dns-server>] internal

Neutron provides a wide range of configuration options; see the OpenStack Neutron documentation for more details.

Configuring a flavor

Starting with the OpenStack Newton release, default flavors are no longer created at install time. You therefore need to create at least one machine type before you can boot an instance:

nova flavor-create m1.small auto 2048 10 1 --ephemeral 20

Booting an instance

First generate a SSH keypair so that you can access your instances once you've booted them:

nova keypair-add mykey > ~/.ssh/id_rsa_cloud

Note: you can also upload an existing public key to the cloud rather than generating a new one:

nova keypair-add --pub-key ~/.ssh/ mykey

You can now boot an instance on your cloud:

nova boot --image xenial --flavor m1.small --key-name mykey \
    --nic net-id=$(neutron net-list | grep internal | awk '{ print $2 }') \

Attaching a volume

First, create a volume in cinder:

cinder create 10 # Create a 10G volume

then attach it to the instance we just booted in nova:

nova volume-attach trusty-test <uuid-of-volume> /dev/vdc

The attached volume will be accessible once you login to the instance (see below). It will need to be formatted and mounted!

Accessing your instance

In order to access the instance you just booted on the cloud, you'll need to assign a floating IP address to the instance:

nova floating-ip-create
nova add-floating-ip <uuid-of-instance> <new-floating-ip>

and then allow access via SSH (and ping) - you only need todo this once:

neutron security-group-rule-create --protocol icmp \
    --direction ingress default
neutron security-group-rule-create --protocol tcp \
    --port-range-min 22 --port-range-max 22 \
    --direction ingress default

After running these commands you should be able to access the instance:

ssh ubuntu@<new-floating-ip>

What next?

Configuring and managing services on an OpenStack cloud is complex; take a look a the OpenStack Admin Guide for a complete reference on how to configure an OpenStack cloud for your requirements.

Useful Cloud URL's

Bundle configuration